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Characteristics of the Internet of Things

    There were more than 10 billion IoT devices active in 2021!

    Likely, this number will rapidly grow in the future as well. Over the past few years, the theoretical vision of the Internet of Things has become a priority for a lot of organizations. 

    With companies choosing to incorporate and merge IoT devices into network infrastructure, there is a constant demand to find new ways to manage and use the data that they have collected.

    IoT devices

    When it comes to the term “things” in IoT, there is a wide range of devices including smart devices like smart fans and bulbs or gadgets that only exist in an internet-enabled world or internet-enabled sensors.

    Now that IoT provides smart ways to perform traditional functions, the popularity of IoT devices has increased. However, this is not only the reason why IoT devices are now preferred. 

    The characteristics of IoT devices and technologies are wide and we will be discussing the same in this guide  alongside learning on why people prefer using them.

    Top Characteristics of IoT

    1). Self-adapting and dynamic

    IoT devices are capable of responding to dynamic and real-time conditions. The devices are also capable of making changes to the surroundings as well. To understand better, consider an example of a surveillance system consisting of multiple cameras to monitor the location. 

    Now when there will be no person present in front of the camera, it will automatically operate in the low power mode however, when it detects an object, it will resume its activity. 

    Not only this, but the camera will also change as per the environment settings. For instance, in case it is evening time, the camera will start operating in the infrared mode. 

    2). Coherent Communication Protocols

    Till now, many communities have developed multiple types of proprietary protocols for communication and connectivity. However, all these protocols are not coherent or interoperable. 

    Since IoT has been developed, there is a constant effort going on to make all these protocols coherent to make them usable on different devices. These standardised or coherent protocols include some crucial protocols like UDP, 6LoWPAN, TCP, IEEE 802.15.4 and more. 

    3). Identity of Things

    The concept of unique identities has been put to significant use with the evolution of IoT. With unique identities, it becomes easier to detect and determine the devices used for management purposes. Multiple methods are used to provide unique identities to people and devices which include uniform resource identifiers, IP addresses, and RFID tags. 

    4). Information network integration

    Every sensor or device used in the IoT network requires the internet or any other communication pathways to work. Now the data that these sensors collect is preprocessed or aggregated in the cloud or a local site. This data is then analysed to make decisions and find conclusions. 

    One of the very common examples of this characteristic of IoT is the fire monitoring system present in a forest to detect fire in the forest. The sensors used in this system will then send the collected data to the sink. This data is then analysed to generate alarms at a personnel's end. 

    5). Self-Configuring

    When it comes to IoT sensors, they are completely capable of getting instructions from a remote location to perform operations like updating, installing or any other management task. For instance, while installing a weather monitoring system, different sensors are placed across the whole area. These sensors are then powered by natural energy resources. 

    Now, these sensors will get instructions from a remote server to perform operations like shutting down, updating firmware, and performing a remote start-up.  With the help of this self-configuring ability of IoT, human intervention is reduced and reduces the efforts to update all the nodes manually. 

    6). Safety

    Another important characteristic of IoT is security. While working with IoT systems, sensitive information is transferred between both endpoints. Therefore, when developing IoT systems, it is important to follow proper safety and security measures. One must not compromise any of the components of an IoT system to avoid any failure of the complete pipelining system. 

    7). Intelligence

    In today's world, every business decision needs to be made based on data only. IoT devices now use deep learning or machine learning models to get valuable information and insights into the system. In such systems, analog signals are processed and then converted into a particular format on which the machine learning models are used. 

    Now that we are discussing some common and latest trends of technology, let's look into a common and practical-based coding problem that you will encounter normally i.e, how to group words with the same set of characters. 

    How to Group Words With The Same Set Of Characters? 

    In this problem, you need to write a code to group the words which have the same set of characters. 

    To understand better, consider the following example. 

    You are given input words= { "student", " Amy", "looped", " Balm", "poodle", " Lamb", "tab", " Studentsss", "bat", " May"}

    The output of the program will be:

    Student, studentsss

    Looped, poodle

    Bat, tab

    Balm, lamb

    May, amy. 

    To solve this problem, we will have to use hashing. Now that we know that the key will store only unique characters which here is a set of 26 lowercase characters. Here, we will have to store the index of the word as the values of a key. When we will completely fill all the key and index values in the table, we will have to print the result by traversing the table. 


    IoT is a constantly evolved technology where almost every day something new is introduced. This Technology has evolved how devices communicate with each other and take directions from a remote location. 

    Apart from this, an IoT device possesses multiple features. Some of the basic characteristics of IoT include that the technology is dynamic and self-adapting, it follows standardised and coherent communication protocols and more. 

    Simply said, IoT has made devices and technology much more smarter and user-friendly. 

    1 comment

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